As highlighted in the IPBES report published in May 2019*, the ongoing loss of biodiversity is due to five major factors: changes in land and sea use, direct exploitation of certain organisms, climate change, pollution and invasive alien species. Currently, more than a third of the world’s land surface and almost 75% of freshwater resources are used for farming of one form or another.
Despite protection and reforestation initiatives, significant indicators are declining for the other Aichi targets: sustainable use of biodiversity and space, phasing out harmful subsidies, the ecological footprint of economic activities, pollution and ecosystem restoration. The report highlights the significant gap between the texts adopted (often in the face of public pressure) and reality.
All this points to the urgency of adopting integrated management and intersectoral approaches that take into account the trade-offs between food production and energy production, as well as infrastructure, freshwater and coastal management and of course preserving biodiversity.
*Report of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services