The loss of biodiversity results from the simultaneous changes to the use of land and sea, the over-exploitation of organisms, climate change, pollution and the proliferation of invasive exotic species. Some 80% of this erosion is linked to agriculture and urbanisation. According to the UN over half of global GBP is dependent on healthy ecosystems. But in Europe alone, over 80% of habitats are in poor condition (wetlands, peat bogs, dunes and more).
Stopping and reversing the erosion of biodiversity relies on specific actions promoting the sustainable use, preservation and restoration of ecosystems. In March 2022, France unveiled the first component of its National Biodiversity Strategy 2030, centred on the protection and restoration of nature and supporting the ecological transition of the most damaging human activities (a component linked with the 4th National Wetlands Plan 2022-2026 and a national action plan of actions against invasive exotic species 2022-2030). In June 2022, the European Commission proposed the restoration of damaged ecosystems and the reintroduction of nature throughout Europe by 2050, while halving the use of chemical pesticides and their associated risks by 2030, with a budget of €100 billion. More widely, the UN “Biodiversity” COP 15 held in December 2022 sought to set out a new post-2020 global framework with, as its goal, the protection of at least 30% of land, water and oceans by 2030 and the reallocation or scrapping of at least US$500 billion per year in subsidies linked with harm to nature.
Another topic on the agenda for COP 15 was the development of an international standard based on the voluntary French standard NF X32-001, “Biodiversity - Strategic and operational approach - Requirements and guidelines” launched in January 2021 to help organisations build conservation, restoration and the sustainable use of biodiversity into their strategies. International standard ISO 17298 is scheduled for launch in June 2024.